What is Intellectual Developmental Disability (IDD) / Intellectual Disability (ID)?
According to the Texas Administrative Code and DSM-5, Intellectual Disability is a term used when there are significant impairments in general mental abilities that impact adaptive functioning in 2 main areas:
Intellectual functioning refers to the ability to learn, reason, and problem-solve in areas involving language, reading, writing, math, general knowledge, and memory.
Adaptive behavior refers to the domains and skills that people need to function independently at home, at school, and in the community, including skills like communication, self-care, home living, social skills, motor skills, academic skills, and community skills.
Levels of intellectual disability vary greatly in children. Intellectual Disability can be caused be a problem that starts any time before a child turns 18 years old – even before birth. Intellectual Disability may be caused by injury, disease, or a problem in the brain. For many children, the cause of their intellectual disability is not known. Other causes of Intellectual Disability do not occur until a child is older, including serious head injury, stroke, or certain infections.
It is important to note that there are slight variations in the criteria set by the Texas Education Agency, TAC, and the DSM-5. An IDD diagnosis given by a psychologist in private practice, or physician, may not be based on information sufficient to meet TAC standards.